Prescriber-Initiated Engagement of Pharmacists for Information and Intervention in Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly

Research Publications | 2 Minute Read

by David L. Bankes *, Richard O. Schamp, Calvin H. Knowlton and Kevin T. Bain
Applied Precision Pharmacotherapy Institute, Tabula Rasa HealthCare, Inc., Moorestown, NJ 08057, USA


Little is known about the types of drug information inquiries (DIIs) prescribers caring for older adults ask pharmacists during routine practice. The objective of this research was to analyze the types of DIIs prescribing clinicians of Programs of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE) made to clinical pharmacists during routine patient care. This was a retrospective analysis of documented pharmacists’ encounters with PACE prescribers between March through December, 2018. DIIs were classified using a developed taxonomy that describes prescribers’ motivations for consulting with pharmacists and their drug information needs. Prescribers made 414 DIIs during the study period. Medication safety concerns motivated the majority of prescribers’ inquiries (223, 53.9%). Inquiries received frequently involved modifying drug therapy (94, 22.7%), identifying or resolving adverse drug events (75, 18.1%), selecting or adjusting doses (61, 14.7%), selecting new drug therapies (57, 13.8%), and identifying or resolving drug interactions (52, 12.6%). Central nervous system medications (e.g., antidepressants and opioids), were involved in 38.6% (n = 160) of all DIIs. When answering DIIs, pharmacists made 389 recommendations. Start alternative medications (18.0%), start new medications (16.7%), and change doses (12.1%) were the most frequent recommendations rendered. Prescribers implemented at least 79.3% (n = 268) of recommendations based on pharmacy records (n = 338 verifiable recommendations). During clinical practice, PACE prescribers commonly ask pharmacists a variety of DIIs, largely related to medication safety concerns. In response to these DIIs, pharmacists provide medication management recommendations, which are largely implemented by prescribers. 

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