Pharmacogenomics and Drug-Induced Phenoconversion Informed Medication Safety Review in the Management of Pain Control and Quality of Life: A Case Report

Case Reports | 2 Minute Read

Muhn S, Amin NS, Bardolia C, Del Toro-Pagán N, Pizzolato K, Thacker D, Turgeon J, Tomaino C, Michaud V.

Published June 15, 2022


Utilizing pharmacogenomics (PGx) and integrating drug-induced phenoconversion to guide opioid therapies could improve the treatment response and decrease the occurrence of adverse drug events. Genetics contribute to the interindividual differences in opioid response. The purpose of this case report highlights the impact of a PGx-informed medication safety review, assisted by a clinical decision support system, in mitigating the drug–gene and drug–drug–gene interactions (DGI and DDGI, respectively) that increase the risk of an inadequate drug response and adverse drug events (ADEs). This case describes a 69-year-old female who was referred for PGx testing for uncontrolled chronic pain caused by osteoarthritis and neuropathy. The clinical pharmacist reviewed the PGx test results and medication regimen and identified several (DGIs and DDGIs, respectively) at Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 and CYP2D6. The recommendations were to: (1) switch tramadol to buprenorphine transdermal patch, an opioid with lower potential for ADEs, to mitigate a CYP2D6 DDGI; (2) gradually discontinue amitriptyline to alleviate the risk of anticholinergic side effects, ADEs, and multiple DDGIs; and (3) optimize the pregabalin. The provider and the patient agreed to implement these recommendations. Upon follow-up one month later, the patient reported an improved quality of life and pain control. Following the amitriptyline taper, the patient experienced tremors in the upper and lower extremities. When the perpetrator drug, omeprazole, was stopped, the metabolic capacity was no longer impeded; the patient experienced possible amitriptyline withdrawal symptoms due to the rapid withdrawal of amitriptyline, which was reinitiated and tapered off more slowly. This case report demonstrates a successful PGx-informed medication safety review that considered drug-induced phenoconversion and mitigated the risks of pharmacotherapy failure, ADEs, and opioid misuse.

Share this:
Fill 1 Copy 2closeFill 5 Copy 4green-arrowhamburgerFill 7 Copy 4Fill 1 Copy 4pauseplaysearch-iconFill 3 Copy 4