Pharmacist-Led Medication Evaluation Considering Pharmacogenomics and Drug-Induced Phenoconversion in the Treatment of Multiple Comorbidities: A Case Report

Research Publications | 2 Minute Read

Nicole Marie Del Toro-Pagán 1,Adriana Matos 1,David Thacker 2,Jacques Turgeon 2,3,Nishita Shah Amin 1 andVeronique Michaud 2,3,*

Abstract

Pharmacogenomic (PGx) information can guide drug and dose selection, optimize therapy outcomes, and/or decrease the risk of adverse drug events (ADEs). This report demonstrates the impact of a pharmacist-led medication evaluation, with PGx assisted by a clinical decision support system (CDSS), of a patient with multiple comorbidities. Following several sub-optimal pharmacotherapy attempts, PGx testing was recommended. The results were integrated into the CDSS, which supported the identification of clinically significant drug–drug, drug–gene, and drug–drug–gene interactions that led to the phenoconversion of cytochrome P450. The pharmacist evaluated PGx results, concomitant medications, and patient-specific factors to address medication-related problems. The results identified the patient as a CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer (IM). Duloxetine-mediated competitive inhibition of CYP2D6 resulted in phenoconversion, whereby the patient’s CYP2D6 phenotype was converted from IM to poor metabolizer for CYP2D6 co-medication. The medication risk score suggested a high risk of ADEs. Recommendations that accounted for PGx and drug-induced phenoconversion were accepted. After 1.5 months, therapy changes led to improved pain control, depression status, and quality of life, as well as increased heart rate, evidenced by patient-reported improved sleep patterns, movement, and cognition. This case highlights the pharmacist’s role in using PGx testing and a CDSS to identify and mitigate medication-related problems to optimize medication regimen and medication safety.

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